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- Describe why postal addresses and telephone numbers are routable.
A postal address has three components that can be used to deliver mail: state, city, and street. A phone number has an area code and exchange. At the core layer, mail can be delivered to the next post office based on only the state or city and state information. A phone number is delivered at the core layer based on the area code.
- What is the purpose of a default route?
A default route is used if there is not a specific entry in the routing table for the destination.
- Describe the difference between routing and switching.
Routing moves a letter or telephone call to the access layer (as in a street or telephone exchange). Switching makes the final delivery. A switching decision is made on the part of the address that is not used in routing.
- What does the term information hiding mean in relation to route summarization?
At the core layer in the postal system, the only information that is needed to make a routing decision is the state or city/state information. The specific street names and street numbers are hidden; the core layer does not need this information. At the core layer in the telephone system, the area code is used to make a routing decision. The specific exchange or last four digits of the phone number are not needed, or hidden, from the core layer.
- How does the use of a hierarchical routing structure (access, distribution, and core) enable a scalable delivery system?
If a delivery system is not divided into access, distribution, and core layers, every point in the system needs to maintain every possible destination address to make a delivery decision. The use of a layered system means each layer needs only the information necessary to deliver to the next layer, either above or below.
- Why are multiple protocols used, such as a package, addressing, delivery, and transportation, instead of using one protocol defining everything?
Using multiple protocols is modular and allows changes to one protocol without affecting the others. For example, if the addressing protocol is dependent on the delivery protocol, changes to one would imply changes need to be made to the other.
- Can you think of another familiar system that routes using a hierarchical delivery system?
The core airports are responsible for routing people and cargo to major geographical areas. Core airports connect with regional airports that serve a specific area; regional airports are at the distribution layer. Finally, to reach your final destination, you can take a bus, a cab, a train, or rent a car. This can be considered the access layer.
- What are the purposes of areas in an OSPF network?
Areas allow the design of a hierarchical network. Routes can be summarized or blocked in an area to reduce the amount of routing information on internal OSPF routers.
- Why are intra-area summary routes not allowed?
OSPF databases on routers in the same area must be identical. If route summarization was allowed within an area, some routers would have specific routes and some routers would have summary routes for routes in the area. If this were allowed, the databases for the area would never agree.
- What types of routes are allowed into a stub area?
OSPF intra-area and interarea routes, and a default route. External routes are not advertised into a stub area.
- What types of routes are allowed into a totally stubby area?
Types of routes are:
- OSPF intra-area routes
- A default route
OSPF interarea and external routes are not advertised into a totally stubby area.
- What types of routes are allowed into a NSSA?
OSPF intra-area, interarea routes and possibly a default route are allowed into a NSSA. External routes from ABRs are blocked, and external routes from ASBRs are converted to N1 or N2 routes.
- What types of routes are allowed into a totally NSSA?
OSPF intra-area routes and a default route are allowed into a tottaly NSSA. External routes from ABRs are blocked, and external routes from ASBRs are converted to N1 or N2 routes.
- What is the difference between an E1 and E2 OSPF route?
An E1 route contains the OSPF cost to reach the ASBR plus the cost from the ASBR to the external route. An E2 route contains only the cost from the ASBR to the external route.
- What is the difference between RIP and OSPF?
RIP broadcast its routing table after each 30 seconds while OSPF only update those entries which are missing the neighbor routing table
- What is the difference between Classless and Classfull routing?
Classfull routing don not advertise subnet mask information along with the network prefix while classless routing do.
- What is the main purpose of areas in OSPFv2?
Routers networks are divided in to areas which are they connected to backbone area0. The areas help you to give performance and easy to handle big network
- What is the purpose of AS_PATH attribute in BGP?
If a route has more than one route to the same IP prefix, the best path is the one with the shortest AS_PATH
- What is redistribution?
The process of communication and exchange information between the different routing protocols is called Redistribution.
- What is the difference between STP and RSTP?
STP: It is used to prevent switching loop in the switching network.
RSTP: It is same as STP just only one thing which is timing of port forwarding has been decrease to 0.
- What is access layer in switching network?
The access layer is the layer in which host are connected with the switch it is an end layer connected host with the switch. Layer 2 switches are widely used in access layer.
- What is a core network?
A core network is where the entire main network lives. Without core network, the whole network cannot be run. All routers and switches are connected to their core network.
- What is private vlan used for?
Private Vlan is used where hundreds of vlans are configured. You only need to make one vlan and all other vlans in this vlan.
- What is route summarization?
It is a method of summarizing route in one IP/network
- What is a load balancer?
Load balancer is a network device which is used to balance the load in on available nodes.